Boeing, SBInet reach critical phase

The success of the next segment could determine the future of the multibillion-dollar project

Will the lessons learned from the first two years of SBInet give the project a better chance for success? The coming months will be the test.

USER INPUT

One of the chief criticisms, in mid-2007,
was that SBInet program managers and
Boeing Co. did not adequately consult
with the Border Patrol officers who would
use the system. "The lack of user involvement
resulted in a system that does not
fully address or satisfy user needs,"
Richard Stana, director of homeland security
and justice issues at the Government
Accountability Office, told a congressional
committee in February.

Since February, Border Patrol officials
and U.S. Customs and Border Protection
(CBP) information technology executives
have been regular contributors at Boeing's
SBInet laboratories, said Jack Chenevey,
Boeing's program manager for SBInet.

"I think the lessons have been learned,
including getting users involved," Stana
said.

TEST BEFORE DEPLOYMENT

Other problems arose because of SBInet's
technology testing and evaluation schedules
overlapped with deployments, a situation
called concurrency. "The greater
the degree of concurrency among related
and dependent program tasks and activities,
the greater a program's exposure to
cost, schedule, and performance risks," a
GAO report states.

Chenevey and retired Air Force Col.
Mark Borkowski, executive director of
CBP, said holding off on permanent
SBInet construction until early 2009 has
allowed for extensive testing, thus avoiding
concurrency.

"As a project manager, I would much
rather do it this way," Chenevey said.

MANAGING EXPECTATIONS

One of the chief criticisms of Rep. Bennie
Thompson (D-Miss.), chairman of the
Homeland Security Committee, has been
about apparent lapses in communication
about SBInet's goals and progress.

Thompson said he was dismayed in June
2007 after learning of potential delays in
SBInet several days after CBP and Boeing
officials gave upbeat reports on the program
during a hearing.

Stana agreed that communicating realistic
expectations is worthwhile. Overall,
CBP and Boeing "are being much more
careful; they have learned some lessons,"
Stana added. "We will see with the Tucson-
1 segment whether it is bearing fruit."

Two years since its inception,
the first permanent
segment of the Homeland
Security Department's
SBInet surveillance system
is about to be installed in southern
Arizona, and the stakes could not
be higher.

SBInet, part of the Secure Border
Initiative, is a virtual border fence
composed of cameras, radars and
other sensors strung on towers and
linked to operations centers. It is one
of the most ambitious projects ever
launched by DHS and also one of the
most criticized.

At a projected cost of $8 billion for
the system on the U.S./Mexico border,
SBInet has been praised as offering
a decisive edge to border protection,
but it is also distrusted as experimental.
The prototype Project 28
now operating in the Arizona desert
is more effective than what was used
in the past but is less than what was
hoped for.

Although it has made major strides
in two years, SBInet still must prove
itself technologically and politically,
homeland security experts say.

NEW LEADER, FRESH START

Mark Borkowski, who started work in
October as SBI executive director at
the Customs and Border Protection
agency, said he is evaluating the project
and expects to make a decision by
summer 2009 on whether to renew
Boeing Co.'s SBInet contract when it
expires Sept. 30, 2009.

In the meantime, Borkowski said
he intends to raise SBInet's budget to
$380 million for towers, sensors and
project management in fiscal 2009.

"I am somewhat more optimistic
today than I was a month ago,"
Borkowski said. "The foundation is
sound, but we need to connect the
building blocks."

"Where SBInet is concerned, year
2009 is critical," said Richard Stana,
director of homeland security and
justice issues at the Government
Accountability Office. "You are coming
in with a new executive director
and new administration. There are
two new segments coming on ?
Tucson-1 and Ajo-1 ? and if these do
not work well and they cannot fully
deploy in 2009 as planned, it will
raise a lot of questions. Do we want to
restructure, go with another contractor
or replan it?"

FIGHTING SKEPTICISM

With the Obama administration and
a new Congress about to take office,
SBInet must overcome lingering
skepticism. Rep. Bennie Thompson
(D-Miss.), chairman of the Homeland
Security Committee, has not been shy
about expressing his disappointment
in SBInet.

Thompson titled a recent hearing
on the program mismanagement,
Missteps and Missed Benchmarks:
Why the Virtual Fence Has Not
Become a Reality."

Thompson was especially vocal
about his doubts when the project
stalled in mid-2007 because of delays,
apparent miscommunications, shifts
in expectations and negative assessments
from Border Patrol users attributed to a lack of user input from
the start. DHS and Boeing officials
say those problems have been
resolved.

Boeing is testing the updated, permanent
SBInet towers and system
under outdoor conditions in a New
Mexico laboratory before deploying
them in March 2009.

"I have a lot more confidence in the
system now," said Jack Chenevey,
Boeing's SBInet program manager.
"I'm very confident this will be a force
multiplier."

CBP accepted the prototype Project
28 in February, and it has been operating
in the Arizona desert since then.

DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff
credits SBInet technology for helping
reduce the number of people apprehended
for illegally crossing the border
in recent months.

DELAYS TURN TO ADVANTAGE

Although the permanent SBInet towers
were initially due to be constructed
starting in July in the Tucson-1
segment in Arizona, CBP put that
work on hold because of problems
securing federal land permits from
the Interior Department and other
sources.

The SBI program office worked
hard to meet its widely advertised
schedule for constructing physical
fencing and vehicle barriers at the
U.S./Mexico border.

In recent weeks, the final land permits
were obtained for Tucson-1 and
have almost been completed for the
Ajo-1 segment, Borkowski said.

Boeing is preparing to do the final,
integrated system testing and refining
of SBInet, including the technology
that integrates the sensor information
into a common view, at an outdoor
facility in New Mexico. The company
has built three surveillance towers
and a communications tower at the
lab facility.

"The system is so much more
robust than before," Chenevey said.
"The system, before we deploy it, will
be highly tested."

Experts say the real proof will be
the first permanent deployment in
early 2009. Boeing and CBP officials
say they have improved the technology,
testing and user feedback to avoid
past mistakes.

On the other hand, GAO officials
outlined several management challenges
for SBInet in September that
have not yet been addressed, including
a need for CBP to prepare a technology
evaluation and requirements
fulfillment process for the entire system.
Next year could bring a make-or-
break moment.

Whether the project continues at
the current pace will depend on assessments by CBP, Congress and
the new administration.

"I get the sense that Customs and
Border Protection is waiting out the
clock," said James Jay Carafano, a
senior research fellow at the Heritage
Foundation. "They have made a good-faith
effort, and they have some numbers
they can point to showing the prototype
is working well. They are punting
it to the next administration."

"There are still management
issues," said David Van Slyke, an associate
professor of public administration
at Syracuse University who has
studied procurement at DHS. "I don't
know if they will get bogged down.
My sense is that they are resolving the
issues."

THE WORLD WATCHES

Governments in other parts of the
world are working on similar surveillance
technologies, including those of
Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, which are
creating sensor systems to help safeguard
their oil fields.

"Does the United States want to
wait until the technologies are proven
in two to five years, or does it want to
lead?" asked one SBInet vendor who
asked not to be identified.

Given the global financial crisis,
federal funding is expected to become
tighter in coming years.

"The basic principle of building a
virtual fence has been accepted," said
Rey Koslowski, associate professor of
political science and public policy at
the University at Albany, N.Y., and an
expert on border issues.

"If we find out it is more difficult
than we expected, enthusiasm may
wane."

However, many experts say SBInet
promises to be a more effective way to
monitor thousands of miles of remote
border areas.

"There is a need for these technologies,"
Carafano said. "In some places,
physical barriers don't make sense.
Certainly, the technologies have
merit."

Alice Lipowicz (alipowicz@1105govinfo.com)
is a staff writer at Washington Technology.

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